Cytisine is an alkaloid that occurs naturally in several plant genera, such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae. It has been used medically to help with smoking cessation(Its molecular structure has some similarity to that of nicotine and it has similar pharmacological effects.). Like varenicline, cytisine is a partial agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).
Recent studies have shown it to be more effective and significantly more affordable smoking cessation treatment than nicotine replacement therapy. Cytisine is a low efficacy partial agonist of ⍺4-β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
These which are believed to be central to the effect of nicotine (NIC) on the reward pathway and facilitate addiction. Cytisine reduces the effects of NIC on dopamine release in the mesolimbic system when given alone, while simultaneously attenuating NIC withdrawal symptoms that accompany cessation attempts.
Cytisine is an acetylcholine agonist and has a strong binding affinity for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Cytisine has a short half-life of 4.8 hours and is rapidly eliminated from the body. It is a low efficacy partial agonist of alpha4-beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which is the central target of the nicotine that facilitates addiction(A potent, selective agonist at neuronal nicotinic receptors, Acts as a partial agonist at β 2-containing nicotinic receptors). Cytisine is capable of reducing the effect of nicotine on dopamine release on the mesolimbic system as well as attenuating the nicotine withdrawal symptoms.
As a pharmaceutical preparation called Tabex or Desmoxan, cytisine has been used in Eastern Europe available for the treatment of tobacco smoking.
Cytisine is used to make smoking cessation drugs. It is extracted from the seeds of Cytisus laborinum L. (Golden Rain acacia) and has been available in former socialist economy (FSE) countries for more than 40 years as an aid to smoking cessation under the brand name Tabex produced by the Bulgarian pharmaceutical company Sopharma AD.
It was first marketed in Bulgaria in 1964 and then became widely available in FSE countries. A 2013 meta-analysis of eight studies demonstrated that cytisine has similar effectiveness to varenicline but with substantially lower side effects. A 2014 systematic review and economic evaluation concluded that cytisine was more likely to be cost-effective for smoking cessation than varenicline.
Cytisine is mainly used for the treatment of respiratory failure caused by neonatal asphyxia and various other diseases.
Clinical use of 0.15% aqueous solution of Cytisine for intramuscular or intravenous injection to rescue reflex apnea, shock and neonatal asphyxia caused by surgery and various traumas. Recent studies have shown that this type of alkaloids also has anti-arrhythmia, anti-microbial infection, anti-ulcer, elevated white blood cells and other pharmacological effects, especially the strong anti-cancer activity of such compounds, Can be used to produce smoking cessation drugs, first aid drugs, cough medicines.
Cytisine is also a useful reagent for organic chemistry such as being used for the manufacture of sparteine surrogate.
Cytisine has some structural and pharmacological similarities to the smoking cessation drug varenicline.
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