Lactulose

Last modified
11/02/2018 - 08:51

Product Details

Name Lactulose
Alias 4-O-β-D-Galactosyl-D-fructose
CAS  No. 4618-18-2
Formula C12H22O11
Weight 342.30 g/mol
Usage Pharmaceuticals
Appearance

White crystal power &
Colourless to dark yellow transparent liquid 

Product Description

The Lactulose is divided into solid and liquid forms. The lactulose liquid is a colourless to dark yellow transparent liquid with low sweetness and low calorie and content of more than 50%.

The lactulose power is white crystal with a content of more than 97%, is easily soluble in water, has good heat and acid resistance, high safety and convenient use. It is a new type of functional disaccharide and an oligosaccharide with special health care functions.

Lactulose is prebiotic that has the function of proliferating bifidobacteria, improving the intestinal environment and maintaining intestinal health. It is widely used in food, medicine and other fields. The use of lactulose has a long history and can be applied to the field of medicine, which proves that lactulose has an extremely high safety. In China, It has been applied to health foods, infant formula powder, maternal powder, middle-aged powder and beverages.

Since 1957, Petler discovered that lactulose is a bifidobacterial proliferation factor. In 1964, Hoffman discovered that only bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and LD streptococci can produce lactulose to produce lactic acid and acetic acid. Metabolic process. In 1966, Berdul discovered that the use of lactulose can promote the growth of alkalophilic Gram-positive bacteria (E. coli, etc.) lacking urease, and reduce the production of ammonia. It has been repeatedly clinically proven that lactulose has the effect of lowering blood ammonia. Used to treat hepatic encephalopathy successfully. In 1979, Molieru used lactulose to treat viral hepatitis. He found that he had a plasma endotoxin. From 1980 to 1981, Reid discovered that lactulose inhibited the endotoxin test in agglutination in vitro and alleviated liver damage induced by D-galactosamine in mice. It is believed that lactulose has anti-endotoxin activity and is used in Treatment of liver and kidney syndrome.

Function

Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It is used by mouth for constipation and either by mouth or in the rectum for hepatic encephalopathy. It generally begins working after 8-12 hours but may take up to 2 days to improve constipation. The lactulose is not digested and absorbed in the small intestine, and is used by the bifidobacteria to reach the large intestine, and has high proliferative activity. Therefore, the lactulose is classified as a low-calorie sweetener and a functional food additive.

Lactulose is not absorbed in the small intestine nor broken down by human enzymes, thus stays in the digestive bolus through most of its course, causing retention of water through osmosis leading to softer, easier-to-pass stool. It has a secondary laxative effect in the colon, where it is fermented by the gut flora, producing metabolites which have osmotic powers and peristalsis -stimulating effects (such as acetate ), but also methane associated with flatulence.

Lactulose is metabolized in the colon by bacterial flora to short-chain fatty acids, including lactic acid and acetic acid. These partially dissociate, acidifying the colonic contents (increasing the H + concentration in the gut). This favours the formation of the nonabsorbable NH + 4 from NH 3, trapping NH 3 in the colon and effectively reducing plasma NH 3 concentrations. Lactulose is therefore effective in treating hepatic encephalopathy.

Application

Lactulose was first made in 1929 and has been used medically since the 1950s. Lactulose is made from the milk sugar lactose, which is composed of two simple sugars, galactose and glucose. Lactulose is by far the only prebiotic for medicinal treatment of constipation. Clinical trials involve many age groups such as infants, children, pregnant women and the elderly, including Germany, Japan, South Korea, the Netherlands, the United States and Singapore. In addition to being used as a food additive, lactulose is also used in medicine for the treatment of constipation and cerebral encephalopathy.

  • constipation

Lactulose is used to treat chronic constipation in patients of all ages as a long-term treatment. The dose of lactulose for chronic idiopathic constipation depends on the severity of constipation and the desired effect of conditioning, from mild stool softeners to cause diarrhoea. In the case of galactosemia, the dose is reduced because most of the preparations contain monosaccharide galactose due to its synthetic process. Lactulose can be used to combat the constipation of opioids and the symptomatic treatment of acne as a faecal softener.

  • Hyperammonemia

Lactulose can be used to treat high blood ammonia, which can lead to hepatic encephalopathy. Lactulose helps to capture and bind ammonia to the colon. It achieves this by using the intestinal flora to acidify the colon and convert the freely diffused ammonia to ammonium ions, which no longer diffuse back into the blood. It can also be used to prevent hyperammonemia caused by side effects of valproic acid administration.

Lactulose for hepatic encephalopathy usually requires a relatively large oral dose, three or four times a day, with paroxysmal diarrhoea and persistent flatulence with almost certain side effects. People who take lactulose at this does usually end up wearing adult diapers and plastic pants for any activity away from home or at night (using a mattress with a chux pad) because diarrhoea can occur quickly and without much warning.

  • Intestinal bacterial overgrowth

Lactulose is used as a test for intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Recently, its reliability in diagnosing SIBO has been seriously questioned. The test is positive if an increase in exhaled hydrogen occurs before digestion through normal colon cells is expected. It is assumed that early results indicate digestion occurs in the small intestine. Another explanation for the difference in results is the change in transit time of the small intestine between subjects.

  • Special population

No evidence of injury to the baby was found during use during pregnancy. It is generally considered safe during breastfeeding.

  • Used as an indirect nutritional supplement in industry

Improve intestinal flora, Preventing relieve constipation, Promote the absorption of minerals, Suppress the productionof harmful substances.

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