Levamisole is a white to milky white crystalline powder or needle crystal, odorless or almost odorless, soluble in dilute acetic acid and chloroform. Melting point 60-61.5 ° C. Very slightly soluble in acetone. It is easily decomposed and deteriorated in an alkaline solution. Optical rotation [α] - 124 ± 2 (20 ° C). The activity of the left-handed body is twice as high as that of the mixed-rotor, and the toxicity is not increased, so the application of the product is better.
The original synthesis at Janssen Pharmaceutica resulted in the preparation of a racemic mixture of two enantiomers, whose hydrochloride salt was reported to have a melting point of 264–265 °C; the free base of the racemate has a melting point of 87–89 °C. The racemic mixture is referred to as "tetramisole" - levamisole refers only to the levorotatory enantiomer of tetramisole.
Levamisole was originally used as an antihelminthic to treat worm infestations in both humans and animals. Levamisole was discovered in 1966. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.
It is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug and an immunomodulator that restores the lower cellular immunity. It is mainly used to drive the worm and the treatment of aphids, hookworms, filariasis, worm etc. Levamisole is widely used and its drug properties are stable.
In immunosuppressed states, levamisole may restore immune function by: 【1】 stimulating antibody formation, 【2】 stimulating T-cell activation and proliferation, 【3】 potentiating monocyte and macrophage phagocytosis and chemotaxis and【4】 increasing neutrophil mobility, adherence, and chemotaxis.
This product can improve the patient's ability to fight bacteria and virus infection. The current trial from lung cancer, breast cancer after surgery or deterioration of acute leukemia, lymphoma after chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy.
Co-administered with fluorouracil in the treatment of Dukes' stage C colon cancer, levamisole restores immune function through stimulating antibody formation, enhancing T-cell activity, and potentiating macrophage function.
In addition, can be used in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and on the feeling, pediatric respiratory infections, hepatitis, bacillary dysentery, boil, abscess, and so on. For intractable bronchial asthma of preliminary trial show that in the near future curative effect is remarkable.
Levamisole has been used to treat a variety of dermatologic conditions, including skin infections, leprosy, warts, lichen planus, and aphthous ulcers.
Levamisole hydrochloride and levamisole are similar drugs, and their effects are similar. The difference is in adverse reactions. Levomisole HCL [adverse reactions] is generally mild.
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