- Oxytetracycline Base
|Usage||Pharmaceuticals / Experiment|
Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, active against a wide variety of bacteria.
It was first found near Pfizer laboratories in a soil sample yielding the soil actinomycete, Streptomyces rimosus by Finlay et al. In 1950, a celebrated American chemist , Robert B Woodward , worked out the chemical structure of oxytetracycline, enabling Pfizer to mass-produce the drug under the trade name, Terramycin. This discovery by Woodward was a major advancement in tetracycline research and paved the way for the discovery of an oxytetracycline derivative, doxycycline , which is one of the most popularly used antibiotics today. Oxytetracycline was patented in 1949 and came into commercial use in 1950.
Oxytetracycline works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce essential proteins. Without these proteins, the bacteria cannot grow, multiply and increase in numbers. Oxytetracycline, therefore, stops the spread of the infection and the remaining bacteria are killed by the immune system or eventually die. (However, some strains of bacteria have developed resistance to this antibiotic, which has reduced its effectiveness for treating some types of infections.)
Oxytetracycline has a broad-spectrum anti-pathogenic microorganism action and is a rapid bacteriostatic agent. It has a bactericidal effect on certain bacteria at high concentrations.
Its mechanism of action is that the drug specifically binds to the A position of the ribosomal 30S subunit, preventing the aminoacyl-tRNA from binding at this position, thereby inhibiting the growth of the peptide chain and affecting the protein synthesis of bacteria or other pathogenic microorganisms.
Oxytetracycline against Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, meningococcus, Escherichia coli, Aerobacteria, Shigella, Yersinia, Listeria monocytogenes, etc. Strong antibacterial activity; in addition, oxytetracycline has a strong effect on rickettsia, mycoplasma, chlamydia, actinomycetes and the like.
Oxytetracycline is still used to treat infections caused by Chlamydia (e.g., the chest infection psittacosis, the eye infection trachoma, and the genital infection urethritis) and infections caused by Mycoplasma organisms (e.g., pneumonia). Oxytetracycline is also used to treat acne, due to its activity against the bacteria on the skin that cause acne ( Propionibacterium acnes ). Oxytetracycline may also be used to treat other rarer infections, such as those caused by a group of micro-organisms called rickettsiae (eg, Q fever).
The main function
- Oxytetracycline can be used as a drug for the treatment of the following diseases: (1) rickettsial disease, including epidemic typhus, endemic typhus, ascariasis; (2) infection caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae; (3) Chlamydia infection, including parrot fever, inguinal granuloma (sexually transmitted lymphogranuloma), non-specific urethritis, salpingitis and trachoma; (4) regression fever; (5) brucellosis (in combination with aminoglycosides) (6) cholera; (7) plague (in combination with aminoglycosides); (8) rabbit fever.
- Oxytetracycline can be used to treat tetanus, gas gangrene, yaw, syphilis, gonorrhea and leptospirosis allergic to penicillin antibiotics.
- Oxytetracycline can also be used to treat respiratory, biliary, urinary and skin soft tissue infections caused by sensitive bacteria.
- Oxytetracycline can also be used for the treatment of acne.
- The pig's paratyphoid, Eperythrozoon, anthracnose, gasping disease, dysentery, swine lung disease, significant effect.
- Chicks dysentery, chlamydia disease, can also be used to relieve stress response, increase egg production, and promote the weight gain of young birds.
- Aquatic products are used to treat fish pathogens, dephosphorization diseases, rotten rot disease, squid by Dehua's disease, squid disease, and scorpion fin disease.
Oxytetracycline, like other tetracyclines, is used to treat many infections, both common and rare (see Tetracycline antibiotics group).
It is sometimes used to treat spirochaetal infections, clostridial wound infection and anthrax in patients sensitive to penicillin. Oxytetracycline is used to treat infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts, skin, ear, eye and gonorrhoea, although its use for such purposes has declined in recent years due to large increases in bacterial resistance to this class of drugs. The drug is particularly useful when penicillins and/or macrolides cannot be used due to allergy.
Oxytetracycline is especially valuable in treating nonspecific urethritis, Lyme disease, brucellosis, cholera, typhus, Tularaemia. And infections caused by Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and Rickettsia. Doxycycline is now preferred to oxytetracycline for many of these indications because it has improved pharmacologic features.
Occasionally, oxytetracycline is given by intramuscular injection or topically in the form of creams, ophthalmic ointments or eye drops.
Oxytetracycline has an inhibitory effect on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also acts as a growth promoting agent.
Oxytetracycline is used to control the outbreak of American foulbrood and European foulbrood in honeybees.
Oxytetracycline can also be used to correct breathing disorders in livestock. It is administered in a powder or through an intramuscular injection. American livestock producers apply oxytetracycline to livestock feed to prevent diseases and infections in cattle and poultry. The antibiotic is partially absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of the animal and the remaining is deposited in manure.
Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service studied the breakdown of oxytetracycline in manure depending on various environmental conditions. They found the breakdown slowed with an increased saturation of the manure and concluded this was a result of decreased oxygen levels. This research helps producers understand the effects of oxytetracycline in animal feed on the environment, bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance.
Trachoma is a chronic contagious conjunctival inflammation that occurs when it is infected with Chlamydia trachomatis, which is smaller than bacteria and larger than the virus.
It can be infected at any age, the incidence is slow, the course of disease can last for several years or decades, and vision is often damaged to varying degrees due to co-morbidity. The immunity of trachoma is very weak and can recur after healing. Clinically, the treatment of trachoma can be treated with traditional Chinese medicine. For more serious trachoma, antibiotic treatment, such as oxytetracycline topical eye drops, and oral oxytetracycline tablets, can be used to inhibit bacteria by antibiotics.
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