Sources and Structure of Diindolylmethane (DIM)
1 . 1. General
Diindolylmethane (DIM) is the primary pharmaceutically active acid-derived metabolic of Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) which is found in many Brassica vegetables via the mother compound glucobrassicin. Ingested glucobrassicin is catalyzed via the enzyme Myrosinase (stored in vegetables) and turns into Indole-3-Carbinol, which is quickly digested into both DARKISH and several other metabolites in the human stomach via acid-mediated condensation reactions.
one. 2. Sources
Options for Glucosinolates (in general) are detailed below, with any source mentioning diindolylmethane or their precursor (Indole-3-Carbinol) specifically being mentioned in bold:
Brussel Sprouts, at 104mg for each 44g (half cup)
Back garden Cress, 98mg at 25g (half cup)
Mustard Greens, 79mg at 28g (half cup, chopped)
Turnip, 60mg at 65g (half cup, cubes)
Savoy Cabbage, 35mg at 45g (half glass, chopped)
Kale, 67mg each 67g (1 cup, chopped)
Watercress, 32mg per 34g (1 cup, chopped)
Kohlrabi, 31mg per 67g (half cup, chopped)
Red Cabbage, 29mg per 45g (half cup, chopped)
Broccoli, 27mg each 44g (half cup, chopped)
Horseradish, 24mg per 15g (tablespoon)
Cauliflower, 22mg per 50g (half-cup chopped)
Bok Choy, 19mg per 35g (half cup, chopped)
1 . 3. Cooking and Running
As glucobrassicin degrades into I3C by the plant-contained enzyme Myrosinase, deactivation with this enzyme by heat-treatment is able to reduce the oral bioavailability of any glucosinolate including POOR. Some bioavailability is stored, yet, due to individual intestines expressing Myrosinase as well.
Cooking food and ] seem to be most suspect in minimizing glucosinolate bioavailability; the past due to excess normal water sapping water-soluble bio actives from the food. Along these lines, cooking methods that utilize less water keep more glucosinolates than do those using lots of water.
Glucosinolates will surely have their absorption rates reduced by cooking, and low-temperature piping-hot may be the most efficient way to protect glucosinolate content of veggies.
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