|Alias||Sulfatropinol; Tropintran; Atropette; Atropisol; Corbella|
|Appearance||White crystalline powder|
Atropisol is an alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
An alkaloid isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna. Atropine functions as a sympathetic, competitive antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, thereby abolishing the effects of parasympathetic stimulation. This agent may induce tachycardia, inhibit secretions, and relax smooth muscles.
Atropine Sulfate is the sulfate salt of atropine, a naturally-occurring alkaloid isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna. Atropine functions as a sympathetic, competitive antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, thereby abolishing the effects of parasympathetic stimulation. This agent may induce tachycardia, inhibit secretions, and relax smooth muscles.
Atropine occurs naturally in a number of plants of the nightshade family including deadly nightshade, Jimson weed, and Mandrake. It was first isolated in 1833. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication and is not very expensive.
Topical atropine is used as a cycloplegic, to temporarily paralyze the accommodation reflex, and as a mydriatic, to dilate the pupils. Atropine degrades slowly, typically wearing off in 7 to 14 days, so it is generally used as a therapeutic mydriatic, whereas tropicamide (a shorter-acting cholinergic antagonist) or phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic agonist) is preferred as an aid to ophthalmic examination.
In refractive and accommodative amblyopia, when occlusion is not appropriate sometimes atropine is given to induce blur in the good eye. Evidence suggests that atropine penalization is just as effective as occlusion in improving visual acuity.
Atropine eye drops have been shown to be effective in slowing the progression of myopia in children in several studies, but it is not available for this use, and side effects would limit its use.
Injections of atropine are used in the treatment of bradycardia (a heart rate < 60 beats per minute).
Atropine was previously included in international resuscitation guidelines for use in cardiac arrest associated with asystole and PEA, but was removed from these guidelines in 2010 due to a lack of evidence for its effectiveness. For symptomatic bradycardia, the usual dosage is 0.5 to 1 mg IV push, may repeat every 3 to 5 minutes up to a total dose of 3 mg (maximum 0.04 mg/kg).
Atropine is also useful in treating second-degree heart block Mobitz type 1 (Wenckebach block), and also third-degree heart block with a high purkinje or AV-nodal escape rhythm. It is usually not effective in second-degree heart block Mobitz type 2, and in third-degree heart block with a low Purkinje or ventricular escape rhythm.
Atropine has also been used in an effort to prevent a low heart rate during intubation of children; however, evidence does not support this use.
Atropine's actions on the parasympathetic nervous system inhibit salivary and mucus glands. The drug may also inhibit sweating via the sympathetic nervous system. This can be useful in treating hyperhidrosis, and can prevent the death rattle of dying patients. Even though atropine has not been officially indicated for either of these purposes by the FDA, it has been used by physicians for these purposes.
Atropine is not an actual antidote for organophosphate poisoning. However, by blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, atropine also serves as a treatment for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve gases, such as tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD) and VX. Troops who are likely to be attacked with chemical weapons often carry autoinjectors with atropine and obidoxime, for rapid injection into the muscles of the thigh. In a developed case of nerve-gas poisoning, maximum atropinization is desirable. Atropine is often used in conjunction with pralidoxime chloride.
Some of the nerve agents attack and destroy acetylcholinesterase by phosphorylation, so the action of acetylcholine becomes excessive and prolonged. Pralidoxime (2-PAM) can be effective against organophosphate poisoning because it can re-cleave this phosphorylation. Atropine can be used to reduce the effect of the poisoning by blocking muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which would otherwise be overstimulated, by excessive acetylcholine accumulation.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery. It is typically given intravenously or by injection into a muscle. Eye drops are also available which are used to treat uveitis and early amblyopia. The intravenous solution usually begins working within a minute and lasts half an hour to an hour. Large doses may be required to treat some poisonings.
Common side effects include a dry mouth, large pupils, urinary retention, constipation, and a fast heart rate. It should generally not be used in people with angle closure glaucoma. While there is no evidence that its use during pregnancy causes birth defects, it has not been well studied. It is likely safe during breastfeeding. It is an antimuscarinic (a type of anticholinergic) that works by inhibiting the parasympathetic nervous system.
Pharma grade or research purpose, It is an antimuscarinic agent.
- To all sorts of visceral colics, such as gastrointestinal colic and bladder irritation symptoms. To cholinergic colic, renal colic curative effect is poorer.
- General anesthesia for medicine, serious before night sweats and salivate disease.
- The vagus nerve overactivity caused by antrum room block, atrioventricular block XingXin disorders such as slow, also can be used for the secondary to antrum room knot function is low but appear ventricular ectopic section.
- Save organic phosphate ester poisoning.
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