|Usage||Cosmetics / Pharmaceuticals|
|Appearance||Colourless to pale yellow transparent or translucent sheet or powder or Medium matrix|
Gelatin (Gelatine) is a white or light yellow, translucent, micro-glossy sheet or powder that is degraded by collagen in connective tissues such as animal skin, bone, sarcolemma, and muscle. It is also called animal gelatin.
Industrial gelatin is a colorless to pale yellow transparent or translucent sheet or powder. It is tasteless and odorless. Water swelling in cold water. Soluble in hot water. Soluble in glycerin and acetic acid, insoluble in ethanol and ether.
Gelatin is a macromolecular hydrophilic colloid. It is a low-calorie health food with high nutritional value. It can be used to make candy additives and frozen food additives. In addition, gelatin is widely used in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
The water and inorganic salts in gelatin account for about 16% and the protein content accounts for more than 82%. Similar to maternal collagen, gelatin is also composed of 18 amino acids, of which the content of the sub-amino acids Pro and Hyp are high. The triple helix structure in gelatin gel mainly relies on intramolecular hydrogen bonding and hydrogen bonding hydration. Pro-NH, Hyp-OH and other amino acid side chain groups and water molecules can form hydrogen bonds, which is beneficial to the triple helix. The structure is stable.
Gelatin is a mixture of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the skin, bones, and connective tissues of animals such as domesticated cattle, chicken, pigs, and fish.
Properties: The finished gelatin is white or light yellow, translucent, micro-glossy flakes or powders; it is a colorless, odorless, non-volatile, transparent and hard amorphous material.
Molecular Weight: Gelatin is a product of collagen denaturation and is a thermoreversible mixture with no fixed structure and relative molecular weight and a molecular weight distribution of tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands (<300 KD).
Solubility: Soluble in hot water, insoluble in cold water, but it can be slowly swelled and softened. Gelatin can absorb water equivalent to 5-10 times the weight.
Gelation: Gelatin solution forms a gel that has a certain hardness and cannot flow. When the gelatin gel is stimulated by the environment, it will respond, that is, when the composition of the solution, the pH, the ionic strength change, and the temperature, light intensity, electric field and other stimulation signals change, or when stimulated by specific chemicals, The glue will mutate and exhibit phase transition behaviour.
Emulsifying properties: Gelatin is an effective protective colloid that prevents the accumulation of crystals or ions, stabilizes heterogeneous suspensions and acts as an emulsifier in oil-in-water dispersions.
Effects on skin
Ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen may affect the skin by increasing the density of collagen fibrils and fibroblasts, thereby stimulating collagen production. It has been suggested, based on mouse and in vitro studies, that hydrolyzed collagen peptides have chemotactic properties on fibroblasts or an influence on the growth of fibroblasts.
In cosmetics, hydrolyzed collagen may be found in topical creams, acting as a product texture conditioner, and moisturizer.
Joint and bone effects
Some clinical studies report that the oral ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen decreases joint pain, those with the most severe symptoms showing the most benefit. Beneficial action is likely due to hydrolyzed collagen accumulation in the cartilage and stimulated production of collagen by the chondrocytes, the cells of cartilage. Several studies have shown that a daily intake of hydrolyzed collagen increases bone mass density in rats.
Although gelatin is 98–99% protein by dry weight, it has little additional nutritional value, varying according to the source of the raw material and processing technique.
Gelatin(As dispersant, binder, thickener, stabilizer, emulsifier is widely used in photographic materials, pharmaceutical, food, papermaking, printing, textile, printing and dyeing, electroplating, cosmetics.) is divided into edible gelatin, medicinal gelatin, industrial gelatin, photographic gelatin, and leather glue and bone glue according to the production of raw materials, production methods, product quality and product use. main application:
- Eat gelatin. It is an important ingredient and additive in the food industry. It is often used as a gelling agent, stabilizer, emulsifier, thickener and clarifying agent in the production of meat products, cakes, ice cream, beer, juice, etc.
- Biofilm material. The most studied gelatin base film materials at home and abroad are mainly chitosan-gelatin blend film, gelatin-silk fibroin blend film, polylactic acid-gelatin blend film and polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin blend film, etc. The physical and chemical properties of gelatin are improved, and the gelatin-based polymer film material is more functional.
- Medical fibre. The blending of other composite materials with gelatin improves the mechanical properties of gelatin-based medical fibre materials.
- Tissue repair and replacement. Gelatin-based composite materials used as tissue engineering scaffold materials and signal molecular carriers are one of the research hotspots of biomaterials. The gelatin solution is crosslinked to form a hydrogel, wherein the water is a porogen, freeze-dried to form a porous scaffold material, and the porosity and pore size can be adjusted by changing the freezing parameters. Therefore, it is possible to design an ideal gelatin-based tissue engineering material according to different tissue repair requirements.
- Industrial gelatin. Used in the manufacture of fibre textiles, insulating materials, paper, holographic materials, etc. In industrial glue, people are accustomed to using protein gelatin for extracting protein from hydrolyzed animal protein, gelatin for feed for feed additives, gelatin for gelatin used in match industry, and match gelatin. The hot-melt gelatin used for packaging and other products is called hot-melt powder, and the gelatin which is naturally dried to dry is called soil glue.
Gelatin is a type of protein obtained by partial hydrolysis of collagen, and gelatin has homology with collagen. Collagen has a rod-like triple helix structure, and this triple helix structure of collagen partially separates and breaks during partial hydrolysis of gelatin. The amino acid composition of gelatin is similar to that of collagen, but the composition may be different due to differences in pretreatment. The gelatin of different specifications generally has a molecular weight of 15,000 to 250,000 Da.
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