|Alias||Tyrosine; (S)-Tyrosine; P-Tyrosine; H-Tyr-OH|
|Usage||Pharmaceuticals / Intermediates / Cosmetic|
L-Tyrosine is the levorotatory isomer of the aromatic amino acid tyrosine. L-tyrosine is a naturally occurring tyrosine and is synthesized in vivo from L-phenylalanine. It is considered a non-essential amino acid; however, in patients with phenylketonuria who lack phenylalanine hydroxylase and cannot convert phenylalanine into tyrosine, it is considered an essential nutrient. In vivo, tyrosine plays a role in protein synthesis and serves as a precursor for the synthesis of catecholamines, thyroxine, and melanin.
Tyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, is one of the 22 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. Its codons are UAC and UAU. It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. The word "tyrosine" is from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese. It is called tyrosyl when referred to as a functional group or side chain.
Tyrosine is an essential amino acid that readily passes the blood-brain barrier. Once in the brain, it is a precursor for the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, better known as adrenalin. These neurotransmitters are an important part of the body's sympathetic nervous system, and their concentrations in the body and brain are directly dependent upon dietary tyrosine. Tyrosine is not found in large concentrations throughout the body, probably because it is rapidly metabolized. Folic acid, copper and vitamin C are cofactor nutrients of these reactions. Tyrosine is also the precursor for hormones, thyroid, catecholestrogens and the major human pigment, melanin. Tyrosine is an important amino acid in many proteins, peptides and even enkephalins, the body's natural pain reliever. Valine and other branched amino acids, and possibly tryptophan and phenylalanine may reduce tyrosine absorption. A number of genetic errors of tyrosine metabolism occur, such as hawkinsinuria and tyrosinemia I. Most common is the increased amount of tyrosine in the blood of premature infants, which is marked by decreased motor activity, lethargy and poor feeding. Infection and intellectual deficits may occur. Vitamin C supplements reverse the disease. Some adults also develop elevated tyrosine in their blood. This indicates a need for more vitamin C. More tyrosine is needed under stress, and tyrosine supplements prevent the stress-induced depletion of norepinephrine and can cure biochemical depression.
- It can treat phenylketonuria.
- Improve the attention of those who lack sleep.
- Can improve adult attention deficit disorder (ADD) or children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- May slow down moderate to moderate depression.
- The compound formulation containing tyrosine is rubbed on the skin for three months, which may delay the formation of wrinkles on the skin.
Some people think that tyrosine can be used to treat Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, heart disease, premenstrual syndrome, schizophrenia, etc.
But this part needs more and more medical evidence to prove it.
L-tyrosine and its derivatives (L-DOPA, melanin, phenylpropanoids, and others) are used in pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and food additives. Two methods were formerly used to manufacture L-tyrosine. The first involves the extraction of the desired amino acid from protein hydrolysates using a chemical approach. The second utilizes enzymatic synthesis from phenolics, pyruvate, and ammonia through the use of tyrosine phenol-lyase. Advances in genetic engineering and the advent of industrial fermentation have shifted the synthesis of L-tyrosine to the use of engineered strains of E. coli.
Tyrosine is a catalytic substrate for the tyrosinase monophenolase function and is the main raw material for the final formation of melanin and brown melanin. In the development of whitening cosmetics, it is also possible to effectively inhibit the production of melanin by studying the synthesis of tyrosinase structural analogues that compete with tyrosine.
The amino acid infusion and the components of the amino acid complex preparation are used as nutritional supplements. Treatment of polio and nuclear encephalitis, hyperthyroidism and other symptoms. Also used in the manufacture of diiodotyrosine, dibromotyrosine and L-dopa
Tyrosine may not be good for psychosis. Many antipsychotic medications apparently function by inhibiting tyrosine metabolism. L-dopa, which is directly used in Parkinson's, is made from tyrosine. Tyrosine, the nutrient, can be used as an adjunct in the treatment of Parkinson's. Peripheral metabolism of tyrosine necessitates large doses of tyrosine, however, compared to L-dopa
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