|Usage||Cosmetics / Pharmaceuticals|
|Appearance||Light yellow powder|
Tocotrienols are compounds naturally occurring at higher levels in some vegetable oils, including palm oil, rice bran oil, wheat germ, barley, saw palmetto, anatto, and certain other types of seeds, nuts and grains, and the oils derived from them.
The vitamin E family comprise four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta).
Chemically, different analogues of vitamin E all show some activity as a chemical antioxidant but do not all have the same vitamin E equivalence. Tocotrienols demonstrate activity depending on the type of antioxidant performance being measured. All tocotrienols have some physical antioxidant activity due to an ability to donate a hydrogen atom (a proton plus electron) from the hydroxyl group on the chromanol ring, to free radical and reactive oxygen species. Historically studies of tocotrienols account for less than 1% of all research into vitamin E.
A number of health benefits of tocotrienols have been proposed, included decreased risk of heart disease and cancer.
Recent studies have found that tocotrienols have better functions than alpha-tocopherol in some cases, such as anti-oxidation, anti-cancer and cholesterol-lowering properties. These special functions of tocotrienols are related to their own structure.
Since tocotrienols contain unsaturated side chains, they can penetrate more effectively into tissues containing saturated fatty acid layers, such as the brain and liver.
At the same time, it can be easily distributed in the lipid layer of the cell membrane, thus playing a good antioxidant and scavenging free radical effect.
- Antioxidant activity in living organisms
- Reduce cholesterol synthesis
- Neuroprotective function
- Anticancer and antitumor properties
- Induced gene expression
- Antioxidant properties
- reduce cholesterol
- Decreased apolipoprotein B
- Reduce lipoprotein (a)-Lp(a)
- Anti-fibrous plaque formation
- Inhibition of monocyte adhesion
A growing number of studies have shown that tocotrienols have unique physiological functions in terms of antioxidant properties, cholesterol lowering, and inhibition of cancer, and in some respects have superior physiological functions than tocopherols, indicating that tocotrienols It is of great value in the prevention and treatment of medical and health food applications such as cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention, but there are also differences.
Because vitamin E has a synergistic effect with selenium and vitamin C, the synergistic effects of other related factors (such as selenium and selenium) should be considered when studying the mechanism and physiological effects of different types of vitamin E in inhibiting cholesterol synthesis and cell proliferation. Vitamin C, etc.).
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
Any of the four forms, alpha, beta, gamma and delta, of a member of the vitamin E family, with potential hypocholesterolemic, antithrombotic, antioxidant, immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Tocotrienol inhibits the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, thereby lowering cholesterol levels. In addition, tocotrienol acts through multiple signal transduction pathways to induce cell cycle arrest and caspase-mediated apoptosis, and to decrease tumour cell proliferation.
In addition, this agent may inhibit angiogenesis through the blockage of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the subsequent inhibition of tumour cell-induced vessel formation. Also, this agent prevents free radical formation and inhibits lipid peroxidation, thereby preventing DNA cell damage. Tocotrienol farnesyl isoprenoid side chains contain 3 double bonds, which are absent in tocopherols, likely contribute to its anti-cancer activities.
On the other hand, studies have found that these properties of tocotrienols are limited to certain tissues, but little is known about the exact mechanism of action involved, and further research is needed.
Tocotrienols VS Tocopherols :
First, both can react with free radicals and have anti-lipid peroxidation properties;
Second, tocopherol has a significantly enhanced film hardness compared to tocotrienol;
Third, in the membrane, the two have similar mobility, but the tocotrienol can be more easily transported between the cell membrane and absorbed by the cell membrane; in addition, only α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol can be Cu2+ It is reduced to Cu1+ and used as an oxidation enhancer in the oxidation reaction of methyl linoleate.
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